Kuroda noted that Japan's 0.5% headline inflation is far lower than elsewhere and noted three reasons:

  1. Increase in demand in reopening in Japan has been lagged compared to US and Europe
  2. Japan has maintained excess capacity
  3. Firms cautious mindset

He noted that firms price setting behaviour has been 'active' and they're paying close attention to that

  • On debt, he noted that he household sector was very healthy